There are a number of electromagnetic testing methods but the focus here will be on eddy current testing. In eddy current testing, electrical currents (eddy currents) are generated in a conductive material by a changing magnetic field. The strength of these eddy currents can be measured. Material defects cause interruptions in the flow of the eddy currents which alert the inspector to the presence of a defect or other change in the material. Eddy currents are also affected by the electrical conductivity and magnetic permeability of a material, which makes it possible to sort some materials based on these properties.
The technician in the image is inspecting an aircraft wing for defects.